Composite materials are made of two or more different materials, through the physical or chemical methods, in the macro (micro) on the composition of new materials with the material. Various materials in the performance of each other learn from each other, resulting in synergistic effect, so that the overall performance of composite materials is better than the original composition of materials to meet a variety of different requirements. The matrix material of the composite material is divided into two categories: metal and nonmetal. Metal matrix commonly used aluminum, magnesium, copper, titanium and its alloys. Non-metallic matrix mainly synthetic resin, rubber, ceramics, graphite, carbon and so on. Reinforcing materials are glass fiber, carbon fiber, boron fiber, aramid fiber, silicon carbide fiber, asbestos fiber, whisker, wire and hard particles.
The composite is a mixture. In many areas have played a great role, instead of a lot of traditional materials. Composite materials according to their composition is divided into metal and metal composite materials, non-metallic and metal composite materials, non-metallic and non-metallic composite materials. According to its structural characteristics are divided into: ① fiber reinforced composite materials. Will be a variety of fiber reinforced body placed in the matrix material from the compound. Such as fiber reinforced plastics, fiber reinforced metals and the like. ② sandwich composite material. From the nature of the different surface materials and core material combination. Usually the surface material strength is high, thin; core material light, low strength, but with a certain stiffness and thickness. Divided into solid sandwich and honeycomb sandwich two. ③ fine particles composite materials. The hard particles are evenly distributed in the matrix, such as dispersion strengthening alloy, cermet and so on. ④ mixed composite materials. By two or more kinds of reinforced phase materials mixed in a matrix phase material composition. Compared with ordinary single reinforced Composite Materials, the impact strength, fatigue strength and fracture toughness are significantly improved, and have special thermal expansion properties. It is divided into intermixing, interlayer mixing, sandwich hybrid, interlayer / interlayer mixed and super hybrid Composite Materials.
Composite Materials can be divided into two major categories: structural Composite Materials and functional Composite Materials.
The structural composite material is a material used as a bearing structure, and consists essentially of a body element capable of withstanding a load and a matrix element capable of connecting the reinforcement as an integral material and acting as a transmitting force at the same time. The matrix includes a variety of glass, ceramic, carbon, high polymer, metal and natural fibers, fabrics, whiskers, sheets and granules. The matrix is made of polymer (resin), metal, ceramic, glass, Cement and so on. By the different reinforcement and different matrix can be composed of a large number of structural composite materials, and to use the matrix to name, such as polymer (resin) based composite materials. Structural composite material is characterized by the material in the use of the requirements of the component selection of components, more importantly, can also be composite structure design, that is, reinforced body layout design, can reasonably meet the needs and save timber.
Functional Composite Materials are usually composed of functional elements and matrix components, the matrix not only play a role in the whole, but also produce synergistic or enhanced function of the role. Functional composite material refers to composite materials other than mechanical properties that provide other physical properties. Such as: conductive, superconductivity, magnetic, piezoelectric, damping, absorbing, through wave, friction, shielding, fire, heat, sound absorption, heat insulation highlights a function. Collectively referred to as functional composite materials. Functional composite materials mainly by the functional body and reinforcement and matrix composition. The functional body may consist of one or more functional materials. Multifunctional Composite Materials can have multiple functions. At the same time, there may be new effects due to the composite effect. Multifunctional composite material is the development direction of functional composite materials.
Composite materials can also be divided into commonly used and advanced two categories.
Commonly used composite materials such as glass fiber reinforced plastic, is the use of glass fiber and other low-performance reinforcement and ordinary polymer (resin) composition. Because of its low price, to a large number of development, has been widely used in ships, vehicles, chemical pipelines and storage tanks, building structures, sporting goods and so on.
Advanced Composite Materials refer to Composite Materials made of high performance reinforcements such as carbon fibers and aramid equal to high performance heat resistant polymers, and later included metal, ceramic and carbon (graphite) and functional Composite Materials. Their performance is excellent, but the price is relatively high, mainly for the defense industry, aerospace, precision machinery, submersible, robot structure and high-end sporting goods.