Composite materials can also be divided into commonly used and advanced two categories.
Commonly used composite materials such as glass fiber reinforced plastic, is the use of glass fiber and other low-performance reinforcement and ordinary polymer (resin) composition. Because of its low price, to a large number of development, has been widely used in ships, vehicles, chemical pipelines and storage tanks, building structures, sporting goods and so on.
Advanced Composite Materials refer to Composite Materials made of high performance reinforcements such as carbon fibers and aramid equal to high performance heat resistant polymers, and later included metal, ceramic and carbon (graphite) and functional Composite Materials. Their performance is excellent, but the price is relatively high, mainly for the defense industry, aerospace, precision machinery, submersible, robot structure and high-end sporting goods.
Composite materials to fiber reinforced materials used the most widely, the largest amount. It is characterized by a small proportion, greater than the strength and modulus. For example, carbon fiber and epoxy resin composite material, its specific strength and specific modulus than steel and aluminum alloy several times, but also has excellent chemical stability, friction and wear resistance, self-lubricating, heat resistance, fatigue resistance Creep, muffler, electrical insulation and other properties. Graphite fiber and resin composite can be obtained with a coefficient of thermal expansion of almost zero material. Another feature of the fiber-reinforced material is anisotropy, so the arrangement of the fibers can be designed according to the strength requirements of the different parts of the article. Carbon fiber and silicon carbide fiber reinforced aluminum matrix Composite Materials, at 500 ℃ can still maintain sufficient strength and modulus. Silicon carbide fiber and titanium composite, not only the titanium heat resistance, and wear resistance, can be used as engine fan blades. Silicon carbide fiber and ceramic composite, the use of temperature up to 1500 ℃, than the use of super-alloy turbine blade temperature (1100 ℃) is much higher. Carbon fiber reinforced carbon, graphite fiber reinforced carbon or graphite fiber reinforced graphite, constitute an ablative material, has been used in spacecraft, rocket missiles and atomic energy reactors. Non-metallic matrix Composite Materials due to the small density, for cars and aircraft can reduce weight, improve speed, save energy. Composite Materials made of carbon fiber and glass fiber are the same, and their stiffness and load capacity are equivalent to 5 times more weight than steel leaf springs.